Pronunciation: -t, -d

On the left is Russia; on the right is Alaska.

When we speak in a normal, relaxed way, we often don't pronounce -t or -d clearly at the end of a word – especially when the next sound is a consonant. After you listen to these examples, try the mini-dictation exercises below.

In these first examples, listen for how -t is dropped before /w/ in "it was" and before /s/ in "August second."

Sometimes you won't hear the -d/-ed ending for the past tense.

The /t/ may be replaced by a little catch in the throat (a "glottal stop"):


Think about where there might be a -t or -d that isn't pronounced clearly! You'll hear each example three times.


So Frank very kindly helped me load everything into my apartment